The Science

ANTI AGEING SCIENCE

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Alpha-Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) are a class of compounds used as exfoliants to help improve the texture, firmness, and elasticity of skin.¹ AHAs are derived naturally from foods and include citric acid (from tropical fruits), lactic acid (from honey and berries), malic acid (from apples) and glycolic acid (from sugar cane).²

PROVEN EFFECTIVENESS

Our Anti-Ageing Range has been scientifically demonstrated* to improve the appearance of your skin:

*Based on a 3-week clinical study on 52 women (subjects) aged between 30-55 years.⁷

EVEN TONE SCIENCE

Photodamaged skin can be characterised by irregular pigmentation.⁷ Excessive sun exposure can create hyper pigmented age spots⁸ or discoloured skin patches⁹ and degrade skin texture.⁸   Our Even Tone Range contains multiple vitamins and antioxidants which work together with your skin’s natural moisture system to help reduce pigmentation and dullness leaving you with younger-looking radiant skin. 

OUR VITAMINS

Our unique formulations contain a variety of naturally occurring vitamins and oils including- Vitamin E (tocopherol), Vitamin B3 (niacinamide), Vitamin C (Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate), Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Seed Oil and Indian Gooseberry (Phyllanus embilica) fruit extract. 

REFERENCES

1. Berardesca E. and Maibach H. (1995) AHA mechanisms of Action. Cosmetics & Toiletries Magazine, Vol 110, p30-31.

2. Smith, WP. (1994) Hydroxy acids and skin aging. Cosmetics and Toiletries, 9: 41-48.

3. Abamba G. (1995) A question of formulation. SPC, p33-36.

4. Daniello NJ. (1996). A plastic surgeon’s views on glycolic acid. Happi, p48-50

5. Moy LS., Murad H. and Moy RL (1993) Glycolic acid therapy: Evaluation of efficacy and techniques in treatment of photodamage lesions. The American Journal of Cosmetic Surgery, Vol 10, p9-13. 

6. Ditre CM., Griffin TD., Murphy GF., Sueki H., Telegan B., Johnson WC., and Yu RJ (1996) Effects of α-hydroxy acids on photoaged skin: A pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study. Journal of American Academy of Dermatology, Vol 43, p187-195.

7. Tran D, Townley JP, Barnes TM, Greive KA. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2014 Dec 19; 8: 9-17.

8. Bergfeld W., Tung R., Vidimos A., Vellanki L., Remzi B. and Stanton-Hicks U. (1997) Improving the cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin with glycolic acid. Journal of American Academy of Dermatology, p1011-1013. 

9. Bissett DL., Miyamoto K., Sun P., Li Ji and Berge CA. (2004) Topical niacinamide reduces yellowing, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging facial skin. International Journal of Science 26:231-238

10. Mayer P., Pittermann W. and Wallat S. (1993) The effect of Vitamin E on the skin. Cosmetics and Toiletries, Vol 108, p99-107. 

11. Moller H., Ansmann A. and Wallat S. (1989) The effects of Vitamin E on the skin in topical applications. 

12. Catak J. (2019) Determination of niacin profiles in some animal and plant-based foods by high performance liquid chromatography: association with healthy nutrition. Journal of Animal Science and technology, 61:138-146

13. Bissett DL., Oblong JE. And Berge CA (2005) Niacinamide: A B Vitamin that improves aging facial skin appearance. American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, 31: 860-865

14. Al-Niaimi F. and Chiang NYZ. (2017) Topical Vitamiv C and the skin: Mechanisms of action and clincal applications. Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, 10:14-17. 

15. Dreher F., Denig N., Gabard B., Schwindt DA and Maibach HI (1999) Effect of topical antioxidants on UV-induced erythema formation when administered after exposure. Dermatology, 198:52-55

16. Pullar, JM., Carr AC., and Vissers MCM. (2017). The roles of Vitamin C in skin health. Nutrients, 9:866-893. doi:10.3390/nu9080866

17. Zemour K., Labdelli A., Adda A., Dellal A., Talou T. and Merah O. (2019). Phenol Content and Antioxidant and Antiaging Activity of Saower Seed Oil (Carthamus Tinctorius L.). Cosmetics, 55. doi:10.3390/cosmetics6030055.

18. Majeed M., Bhat B., Anand S., Sivakumar A., Paliwal P and Geetha KG. (2011) Inhibition of UV-induced ROS and collagen damage by Phyllanthus emblica extract in normal human dermal fibroblasts. Journal of Cosmetic Science, 69: 49-56.